In the Central African Republic, the bark of Corynanthe pachyceras is consumed in palm wine as an aphrodisiac and in order to stay awake. In the Congo and in Gabon, the bark of C. pachyceras is not considered to be different from that of Pausinystalia bark (the primary source of yohimbine), and they also use it to stay awake and as an aphrodisiac.
The Aztecs and other native peoples of Mesoamerica have been using A. mexicana for various ritual and medicinal purposes since pre-Columbian times. The Aztecs used A. mexicana as a ritual incense. It was sacred to Uixtociuatl, the Aztec goddess of salt and salt makers. It is also said to have been sacred to Tlaloc, the rain god. In colonial documents, A. mexicana is discussed along with peyote and ololiuqui. Today, it is primarily used in folk medicine and smoked as a marijuana substitute.
C. edulis leaves, or khat leaves, have been used for a very long time, certainly for longer than coffee has been consumed as a beverage. It was most likely first consumed as a stimulant in Ethiopia, and was then spread by the Sufis and wandering dervishes, who ingested the leaves ritually. They saw the consumption of khat leaves as a sacred activity through which one could come to understand the wisdom of God.
A brief discussion of plants that may be extracted in water, including information on water temperature, extraction time, and active components.
On Monday 21 May 2001 Geraldine Fijneman, head of the Amsterdam branch of the Santo Daime church was acquitted by the court. Judge Marcus and his two colleagues decided that, although it was proven that mrs. Fijneman had owned, transported and distributed a DMT-containing substance, her constitutional right to Freedom of Religion must be respected.
A brief discussion of plants that may be extracted in alcohol, including extraction time and active constituents.
In Pre-Columbian times, many South American natives used some of the up-to-sixty edible Passiflora species as food, as well as as a source of medicine and sedatives. When Spanish missionaries invaded the New World, they took Passiflora as a sign from their God, seeing the unusual flowers as a symbol of the mystery and the passion of their savior. It was the Spanish Friars who first called it “Flos Passionis,” or Passion Flower in English, because of their imagined conception that Passiflora was the living epitome of the passion story of their Lord Savior.
The Nangamp of the Wahgi region and their neighbours in the Chimbu region of Papua New Guinea eat the nuts from certain species of Pandanus to induce a state they call ‘karuke madness’. The species used is thought to be Pandanus papuanus. The Wopkaimin of the Ok Tedi region also consume the nuts, with whole villages going into ‘hysterical excitement’ at times as a result. This always occurs during the Pandanus fruiting season, from September to January. The nuts are often eaten as food, or pressed to make oil. Other parts of the tree are used to build huts and torches.
There is some anecdotal evidence to suggest that Germanic peoples combined Panaeolus subbalteatus with alcoholic beverages like mead or beer. Most of this evidence centers around its connection to Wotan, the Germanic god of ecstasy, as this fungus obviously has a mutualistic and symbiotic relationship to the horse, Wotan’s sacred animal.
While studying Mexican magic mushrooms, Richard Evans Schulte identified Panaeolus sphinctrinus as teonanacatl, (meaning ‘flesh of the gods’ in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs), along with Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe caerulescens. However, the authenticity of the use of this species as such has been questioned. The ancient Mesoamericans used teonanacatl to attain contact with the gods, to reveal the nature of the inner soul and to generate sacred visions.
Datura innoxia, or toloache, is the most ethnopharmacologically important of all thorn apple species in the New World. Excavations dating to 1200 C.E. have shown that the prehistoric Pueblo indians of the Southwest used the seeds in rituals. It has also clearly been used in Mexico since the prehistoric period. At present, it is still used in Mexico for medicinal, ritual and aphrodisiac purposes.
Oncidium cebolleta is considered a peyote substitute or companion by the indigenous peoples of Mexico. It is utilised when Lophophora wiliamsii is not available. It is also used externally to treat fractures and contusions. It is not certain whether the plant actually has psychotropic qualities, or if it is simply used as a medicinal peyote substitute. Other species of Oncidium are used in Mexico, Columbia and Ecuador as an antiseptic and headache treatment.